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Parker Thomas
Parker Thomas

Oracle WebLogic Server 11g Administration Handbook: Everything You Need to Know to Manage Your Application Server Environment


Outline of the article --- H1: Oracle WebLogic Server 11g Administration Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide for Administrators H2: Introduction H3: What is Oracle WebLogic Server 11g? H3: What is the Oracle WebLogic Server 11g Administration Handbook? H3: Who is this book for? H2: Installing and Configuring Oracle WebLogic Server 11g H3: Installation prerequisites and modes H3: Installation procedures and directories H3: Upgrading from previous versions H2: Managing and Monitoring Oracle WebLogic Server 11g H3: Using the Administration Console and Monitoring Dashboard H3: Using the WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST) H3: Using Node Manager and Work Managers H2: Deploying and Securing Applications on Oracle WebLogic Server 11g H3: Deploying Web applications, Enterprise JavaBeans, and Java EE modules H3: Improving scalability and reliability using clusters H3: Authenticating, authorizing, and mapping users within security realms H2: Tuning and Troubleshooting Oracle WebLogic Server 11g H3: Monitoring servers, threads, and queues H3: Tuning the Java Virtual Machine and garbage collection H3: Maximizing throughput and optimizing performance H2: Conclusion --- # Oracle WebLogic Server 11g Administration Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide for Administrators ## Introduction Oracle WebLogic Server 11g is a powerful and robust application server that provides a platform for developing and deploying enterprise applications. It supports the latest standards and technologies, such as Java EE 6, JPA 2.0, JSF 2.0, EJB 3.1, JAX-WS 2.2, JAX-RS 1.1, and more. It also integrates with other Oracle products, such as Oracle Database, Oracle Fusion Middleware, Oracle Coherence, Oracle SOA Suite, and Oracle Identity Management. The Oracle WebLogic Server 11g Administration Handbook is a comprehensive guide for administrators who want to master the configuration and management of Oracle WebLogic Server 11g. It explains the latest management techniques for the de facto application server for Oracle Fusion Middleware 11 g> and provides detailed examples and best practices . It covers topics such as installation, upgrade, domain configuration, server administration, deployment, security, tuning, troubleshooting, and more. This book is for anyone who wants to learn how to administer Oracle WebLogic Server 11g effectively and efficiently. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced administrator, you will find valuable information and tips that will help you optimize your application server environment. ## Installing and Configuring Oracle WebLogic Server 11g Before you can start using Oracle WebLogic Server 11g, you need to install it on your system. There are different installation modes and options that you can choose from depending on your needs and preferences. You also need to configure domains, servers, clusters, custom networks, and virtual hosts to suit your application requirements. ### Installation prerequisites and modes To install Oracle WebLogic Server 11g, you need to meet some prerequisites , such as: - A supported operating system (Windows, Linux, Solaris, etc.) - A supported Java Development Kit (JDK) version (1.6 or higher) - A supported web browser (Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, etc.) - Enough disk space (at least 1 GB for installation files) - Enough memory (at least 512 MB for JVM heap size) You can install Oracle WebLogic Server 11g in different modes , such as: - Development mode: This mode is suitable for developers who want to test their applications locally. It provides a quick installation with default settings and enables debugging features. - Production mode: This mode is suitable for administrators who want to deploy their applications in a production environment. It provides a secure installation with customized settings and disables debugging features. - Custom mode: This mode allows you to select the components and features that you want to install. It gives you more control and flexibility over the installation process. ### Installation procedures and directories To install Oracle WebLogic Server 11g, you need to follow some procedures , such as: - Downloading the installation files from the Oracle website or using the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) - Running the installation program and accepting the license agreement - Choosing the installation mode and type (typical or custom) - Selecting the installation directory and the JDK location - Configuring the domain name, user name, password, and port numbers - Reviewing the installation summary and clicking Install - Verifying the installation success and clicking Done The installation program creates some directories on your system, such as: - The Oracle home directory: This is the root directory of the installation. It contains the product binaries, libraries, configuration files, and documentation. - The Middleware home directory: This is a subdirectory of the Oracle home directory. It contains the Oracle Fusion Middleware products, such as Oracle WebLogic Server, Oracle Coherence, Oracle SOA Suite, etc. - The WebLogic home directory: This is a subdirectory of the Middleware home directory. It contains the Oracle WebLogic Server files, such as wlserver_10.3, common, server, etc. - The domain home directory: This is a separate directory that you specify during the installation. It contains the domain configuration files, such as config.xml, security, logs, etc. ### Upgrading from previous versions If you have a previous version of Oracle WebLogic Server installed on your system, you can upgrade it to Oracle WebLogic Server 11g using some tools and procedures , such as: - The Upgrade Wizard: This is a graphical tool that guides you through the upgrade process. It helps you to back up your existing domain, check for compatibility issues, copy and modify your configuration files, and start your upgraded domain. - The Upgrade Assistant: This is a command-line tool that performs the same tasks as the Upgrade Wizard. It allows you to run the upgrade in silent mode or in interactive mode. - The Rolling Upgrade: This is a technique that allows you to upgrade your domain without downtime. It involves creating a new domain with Oracle WebLogic Server 11g, migrating your applications and resources to the new domain, and switching your clients to the new domain. ## Managing and Monitoring Oracle WebLogic Server 11g Once you have installed and configured Oracle WebLogic Server 11g, you need to manage and monitor it regularly to ensure its optimal performance and availability. You can use various tools and features that Oracle WebLogic Server 11g provides for this purpose, such as: ### Using the Administration Console and Monitoring Dashboard The Administration Console is a web-based graphical user interface that allows you to perform administrative tasks on your domain. You can access it by using a web browser and entering the URL http://hostname:port/console, where hostname is the name of the machine where the Admin Server is running and port is the listen port number of the Admin Server. The Administration Console provides a hierarchical view of your domain resources, such as servers, clusters, applications, data sources, JMS destinations, security realms, etc. You can use it to create, modify, delete, start, stop, monitor, and troubleshoot these resources. You can also use it to perform common tasks, such as deploying applications, creating users and groups, configuring security policies, tuning performance parameters, etc. The Monitoring Dashboard is a web-based graphical user interface that allows you to monitor the health and performance of your domain. You can access it by using a web browser and entering the URL http://hostname:port/console/dashboard/, where hostname and port are the same as for the Administration Console. The Monitoring Dashboard provides a graphical view of your domain metrics, such as server status, server load, heap usage, thread count, JDBC connections, JMS messages, etc. You can use it to view historical data or real-time data of these metrics. You can also use it to set thresholds and alerts for these metrics. ### Using the WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST) The WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST) is a command-line tool that allows you to manage and monitor your domain using scripts. You can use it to perform administrative tasks that are not available or convenient in the Administration Console. You can also use it to automate repetitive or complex tasks. WLST uses Python as its scripting language and Jython as its interpreter. It provides a set of commands and variables that interact with the WebLogic Server MBeans (managed beans) through JMX (Java Management Extensions). You can use these commands and variables to create scripts that manipulate your domain resources. You can run WLST in two modes: connects to a running Admin Server and operates on a live domain. You can use this mode to perform dynamic configuration changes that take effect immediately without restarting the server. - Offline mode: In this mode, WLST operates on a domain configuration file (config.xml) without connecting to a running server. You can use this mode to perform static configuration changes that require restarting the server to take effect. To start WLST, you need to run the wlst.sh script (on UNIX) or the wlst.cmd script (on Windows) from the WL_HOME/common/bin directory, where WL_HOME is the WebLogic home directory. You can then enter commands or run scripts in the WLST prompt. ### Using Node Manager and Work Managers Node Manager is a Java utility that runs as a separate process on each machine in your domain. It allows you to start, stop, and restart the Admin Server and the Managed Servers remotely using the Administration Console or WLST. It also monitors the health of the servers and automatically restarts them if they fail. To use Node Manager, you need to configure it on each machine and register it with the Admin Server. You also need to enable Node Manager for each server that you want to control remotely. You can then use Node Manager commands or methods to manage your servers. Work Managers are components that prioritize and schedule the execution of work requests on a server or a cluster. Work requests are units of work that are submitted by applications or system components, such as servlets, EJBs, JMS messages, timers, etc. Work Managers allow you to optimize the performance and throughput of your applications by defining rules and policies for allocating threads and resources to different types of work requests. You can create and configure Work Managers using the Administration Console or WLST. You can also monitor and tune Work Managers using the Monitoring Dashboard or WLST. ## Deploying and Securing Applications on Oracle WebLogic Server 11g Oracle WebLogic Server 11g supports various types of applications that conform to the Java EE 6 specifications, such as Web applications, Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs), Java EE modules, etc. You can deploy these applications on your domain using different methods and tools, such as: ### Deploying Web applications, Enterprise JavaBeans, and Java EE modules Web applications are applications that provide dynamic web content and services using technologies such as servlets, JSPs, JSFs, etc. Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs) are components that implement business logic and transactions using technologies such as session beans, entity beans, message-driven beans, etc. Java EE modules are collections of related components that are packaged together using technologies such as web modules, EJB modules, application client modules, resource adapter modules, etc. You can deploy these types of applications on Oracle WebLogic Server 11g using different methods , such as: - The Administration Console: This is a graphical tool that allows you to deploy applications by uploading files or selecting directories from your file system. You can also use it to configure deployment options, such as targets, stages, plans, etc. - The weblogic.Deployer: This is a command-line tool that allows you to deploy applications by specifying files or directories as arguments. You can also use it to configure deployment options using flags and parameters. - The WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST): This is a scripting tool that allows you to deploy applications by invoking methods or running scripts. You can also use it to configure deployment options using variables and arguments. - The Ant tasks: These are tasks that allow you to deploy applications by using Ant build files. You can also use them to configure deployment options using properties and attributes. ### Improving scalability and reliability using clusters A cluster is a group of servers that work together to provide high availability and load balancing for your applications. A cluster consists of one or more Managed Servers that share the same application components and configuration. A cluster also has one or more cluster addresses that act as virtual hosts for client requests. You can improve the scalability and reliability of your applications by deploying them on clusters instead of single servers. Clusters provide benefits such as: - Load balancing: Clusters distribute client requests among multiple servers based on their availability and capacity. This improves the performance and throughput of your applications. - Failover: Clusters provide backup servers for client requests in case of server failure or overload. This improves the availability and reliability of your applications. - Replication: Clusters replicate session data and state information among multiple servers. This ensures the consistency and continuity of your applications. You can create and configure clusters using the Administration Console or WLST. You can also monitor and manage clusters using the Administration Console, WLST, or the weblogic.Cluster command-line tool. ### Authenticating, authorizing, and mapping users within security realms A security realm is a scope of security that defines the users, groups, roles, and policies for a domain or a subset of a domain. A security realm consists of one or more security providers that implement specific security functions, such as authentication, authorization, credential mapping, auditing, etc. You can secure your applications by configuring security realms for your domain or your servers. Security realms provide features such as: - Authentication: Security realms verify the identity of users who access your applications using authentication providers, such as default providers, LDAP providers, database providers, etc. - Authorization: Security realms control the access of users to your applications using authorization providers, such as default providers, XACML providers, custom providers, etc. - Credential mapping: Security realms map the credentials of users to the credentials of resources that your applications use using credential mapping providers, such as default providers, custom providers, etc. You can create and configure security realms using the Administration Console or WLST. You can also monitor and audit security realms using the Administration Console or WLST. ## Tuning and Troubleshooting Oracle WebLogic Server 11g Oracle WebLogic Server 11g provides various tools and features that allow you to tune and troubleshoot your domain and your applications. You can use these tools and features to monitor the health and performance of your servers and applications, identify and resolve problems, and optimize your system resources. Some of these tools and features are: ### Monitoring servers, threads, and queues Servers are processes that run on machines and host your applications. Threads are units of execution that handle client requests on servers. Queues are data structures that store pending requests on servers. You can monitor the status and activity of your servers, threads, and queues using different tools , such as: - The Administration Console: This is a graphical tool that allows you to view server statistics, thread dumps, queue sizes, etc. You can also use it to start, stop, suspend, resume, or restart servers. - The Monitoring Dashboard: This is a graphical tool that allows you to view server metrics, such as server load, heap usage, thread count, queue length, etc. You can also use it to set thresholds and alerts for these metrics. , etc. You can also use it to invoke server methods or run server scripts. - The weblogic.Server: This is a command-line tool that allows you to start, stop, or restart servers. You can also use it to view server logs or set server options. ### Tuning the Java Virtual Machine and garbage collection The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a software component that runs Java applications on servers. Garbage collection (GC) is a process that reclaims memory from unused objects on the JVM heap. You can tune the JVM and GC parameters to optimize the performance and memory usage of your servers and applications. You can use different tools to tune these parameters , such as: - The Administration Console: This is a graphical tool that allows you to set JVM arguments and GC options for your servers. You can also use it to view JVM statistics and GC logs. - The Monitoring Dashboard: This is a graphical tool that allows you to view JVM metrics, such as heap usage, GC activity, GC pauses, etc. You can also use it to set thresholds and alerts for these metrics. - The WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST): This is a scripting tool that allows you to get or set JVM attributes and GC properties for your servers. You can also use it to view JVM statistics and GC logs. - The JRockit Mission Control: This is a graphical tool that allows you to monitor and analyze the JVM behavior and performance of your servers. You can use it to view JVM metrics, GC activity, memory leaks, thread contention, etc. ### Maximizing throughput and optimizing performance Throughput is a measure of how many requests your servers can handle per unit of time. Performance is a measure of how fast your servers can process requests and respond to clients. You can maximize the throughput and optimize the performance of your servers and applications by using different techniques , such as: - Load balancing: This is a technique that distributes client requests among multiple servers based on their availability and capacity. This improves the performance and throughput of your applications. - Failover: This is a technique that provides backup servers for client requests in case of server failure or overload. This improves the availability and reliability of your applications. - Replication: This is a technique that replicates session data and state information among multiple servers. This ensures the consistency and continuity of your applications. - Caching: This is a technique that stores frequently accessed data or objects in memory or disk. This reduces the access time and network traffic for your applications. - Compression: This is a technique that reduces the size of data or objects that are transferred between servers and clients. This improves the bandwidth and response time for your applications. You can implement these techniques using different features that Oracle WebLogic Server 11g provides , such as: - Clusters: These are groups of servers that work together to provide high availability and load balancing for your applications. - Coherence: This is a product that provides distributed caching and data grid services for your applications. - WebLogic Server Plug-Ins: These are components that integrate Oracle WebLogic Server with third-party web servers, such as Apache, IIS, etc. - HTTP Compression: This is a feature that compresses HTTP responses from Oracle WebLogic Server before sending them to clients. ## Conclusion Oracle WebLogic Server 11g is a powerfu


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