A Practical Introduction to Petroleum Measurement Tables (ASTM D 1250)
Petroleum Measurement Tables (ASTM D 1250)
If you work in the petroleum industry, you probably know how important it is to measure the quantity and quality of crude oil and petroleum products accurately and consistently. Whether you are involved in exploration, production, refining, transportation, or marketing of petroleum fluids, you need reliable methods and standards to ensure fair and efficient transactions and operations. One of the most widely used tools for this purpose is the petroleum measurement tables, also known as ASTM D 1250.
Petroleum Measurement Tables (ASTM D 1250).rar
In this article, we will explain what are petroleum measurement tables, why they are important, how they are used, and what are the different types and systems of measurement. We will also describe the various methods of calculation, from manual to computerized, and provide some examples and references for further reading.
What are petroleum measurement tables?
Petroleum measurement tables are a set of standardized tables that provide conversion factors for calculating the quantities of crude oil and petroleum products at reference conditions from measured data at observed conditions. The reference conditions are defined as a standard temperature and pressure for each system of measurement. The measured data include density, temperature, pressure, volume, mass, and API gravity of the petroleum fluid.
The petroleum measurement tables are based on empirical correlations derived from experimental data collected over many years by various organizations and laboratories. The tables cover a wide range of densities and temperatures for different types of petroleum fluids. The tables are periodically updated and revised to reflect new data and technologies.
Why are they important?
Petroleum measurement tables are important because they provide a common basis for measuring and trading crude oil and petroleum products around the world. They help to ensure consistency, accuracy, and fairness in the determination of quantities and qualities of petroleum fluids. They also facilitate the calculation of taxes, royalties, fees, and other charges related to the production, transportation, and consumption of petroleum fluids.
Petroleum measurement tables are also important because they enable the comparison and analysis of different types of petroleum fluids from different sources and destinations. They help to evaluate the performance and efficiency of various processes and equipment involved in the exploration, production, refining, transportation, and marketing of petroleum fluids. They also support the development and improvement of new technologies and standards for the petroleum industry.
How are they used?
Petroleum measurement tables are used by applying the appropriate conversion factors to the measured data at observed conditions to obtain the equivalent data at reference conditions. The conversion factors depend on the type of petroleum fluid, the system of measurement, and the method of calculation. The conversion factors are usually expressed as coefficients or functions that relate the density or volume at reference conditions to the density or volume at observed conditions.
The most common conversion factors used in petroleum measurement tables are: - CTPL: coefficient of thermal expansion/pressure/liquid (also known as VCF or volume correction factor), which relates the volume at reference conditions to the volume at observed conditions. - CTL: coefficient of thermal expansion/liquid (also known as FVF or formation volume factor), which relates the volume at reference temperature to the volume at observed temperature. - CTP: coefficient of thermal expansion/pressure, which relates the volume at reference pressure to the volume at observed pressure. - CTD: coefficient of thermal expansion/density, which relates the density at reference temperature to the density at observed temperature. - CTPLD: coefficient of thermal expansion/pressure/liquid/density, which relates the density at reference conditions to the density at observed conditions.
The general formula for using the petroleum measurement tables is: - Vr = Vo x CTPL, where Vr is the volume at reference conditions, Vo is the volume at observed conditions, and CTPL is the coefficient of thermal expansion/pressure/liquid. - Dr = Do x CTPLD, where Dr is the density at reference conditions, Do is the density at observed conditions, and CTPLD is the coefficient of thermal expansion/pressure/liquid/density.
Types of petroleum measurement tables
Petroleum measurement tables are classified into three main types according to the type of petroleum fluid they cover. These are: - Generalized crude oils: these tables apply to crude oils that have a density range between approximately -10 API to 100 API. Crude oils that have been stabilized for transportation or storage purposes and whose API gravities lie within that range are considered to be part of this group. - Generalized products: these tables apply to refined products that have a density range between approximately 0 API to 100 API. Refined products include gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil, kerosene, naphtha, and others. - Lubricating oils: these tables apply to lubricating oils that have a density range between approximately 10 API to 70 API. Lubricating oils include motor oil, hydraulic oil, gear oil, and others.
Systems of measurement
Petroleum measurement tables are available in two main systems of measurement: U.S. customary units and metric units. Each system has its own reference conditions and conversion factors. The systems are: - U.S. customary units: this system uses units such as barrels, gallons, pounds, degrees Fahrenheit, and pounds per square inch. The reference conditions are 60 F and atmospheric pressure (14.696 psi). - Metric units: this system uses units such as cubic meters, liters, kilograms, degrees Celsius, and kilopascals. The reference conditions are either 15 C or 20 C and atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa).
Petroleum measurement tables can be used in three different methods of calculation: manual calculation using printed tables, computer calculation using subroutines, and online calculation using density meters. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. The methods are: - Manual calculation using printed tables: this method involves using hardcopy printed tables that contain the conversion factors for different types of petroleum fluids, systems of measurement, and ranges of density and temperature. The user has to locate the appropriate table and interpolate the values for the measured data. This method is simple and inexpensive, but it is prone to errors and inaccuracies due to human factors and limited resolution of the tables. - Computer calculation using subroutines: this method involves using computer software that contains the subroutines for calculating the conversion factors for different types of petroleum fluids, systems of measurement, and ranges of density and temperature. The user has to input the measured data and select the appropriate options. The software then performs the calculations and displays the results. This method is fast and accurate, but it requires access to a computer and compatible software. - Online calculation using density meters: this method involves using electronic devices that measure the density of the petroleum fluid at observed conditions and automatically calculate the equivalent data at reference conditions using the petroleum measurement tables. The user has to install and calibrate the device and read the results. This method is convenient and reliable, but it requires investment in equipment and maintenance.
In conclusion, petroleum measurement tables are a valuable tool for measuring and trading crude oil and petroleum products around the world. They provide standardized conversion factors for calculating the quantities of petroleum fluids at reference conditions from measured data at observed conditions. They cover different types of petroleum fluids, systems of measurement, and methods of calculation.
If you want to learn more about petroleum measurement tables, you can refer to the following sources: - ASTM D1250: Standard Guide for Petroleum Measurement Tables - API MPMS Chapter 11.1: Temperature and Pressure Volume Correction Factors for Generalized Crude Oils, Refined Products, and Lubricating Oils - IP 200: Petroleum Measurement Tables - ISO 91: Petroleum Measurement Tables
What is API gravity?
API gravity is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum fluid is compared to water. It is calculated as: $$API = \frac141.5SG - 131.5$$ where SG is the specific gravity of the petroleum fluid at 60 F and water at 60 F. The higher the API gravity, the lighter the petroleum fluid.
What is the difference between 15 C and 20 C as reference temperatures for metric units?
The difference between 15 C and 20 C as reference temperatures for metric units is that they correspond to different historical standards and regions of use. The 15 C reference temperature is based on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) and is used in Europe and most parts of the world. The 20 C reference temperature is based on the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 (IPTS-68) and is used in Canada and some parts of Asia.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using density meters for online calculation?
The advantages of using density meters for online calculation are that they provide continuous and real-time measurement of the density and volume of the petroleum fluid at observed and reference conditions. They also eliminate the need for manual sampling, testing, and calculation. The disadvantages of using density meters for online calculation are that they require initial investment in equipment and installation, regular calibration and maintenance, and proper operation and supervision.
How can I access the petroleum measurement tables?
You can access the petroleum measurement tables by purchasing them from the official sources such as ASTM International, American Petroleum Institute (API), Institute of Petroleum (IP), or International Organization for Standardization (ISO). You can also access them online through subscription-based services such as ASTM Compass or API MPMS Online.
How can I verify the accuracy and validity of the petroleum measurement tables?
You can verify the accuracy and validity of the petroleum measurement tables by comparing them with other sources of data such as laboratory tests, field measurements, or independent studies. You can also check for updates and revisions from the official sources to ensure that you are using the latest version of the tables.