top of page

Novice Karate Group (ages 8 & up)

공개·회원 9명
Parker Thomas
Parker Thomas

Sense Organ



The ear is a sensory organ that picks up sound waves, allowing us to hear. It is also essential to our sense of balance: the organ of balance (the vestibular system) is found inside the inner ear. It is made up of three semicircular canals and two otolith organs, known as the utricle and the saccule. The semicircular canals and the otolith organs are filled with fluid.




sense organ


DOWNLOAD: https://www.google.com/url?q=https%3A%2F%2Fjinyurl.com%2F2udSLb&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AOvVaw30_fEbvpa2D3OsOnp2_uPV



Information coming from the vestibular system is processed in the brain and then sent on to other organs that need this information, such as the eyes, joints or muscles. This allows us to keep our balance and know what position our body is in.


In some situations, for example on a ship or airplane, different sensory organs (e.g. the eyes and the organ of balance) send contradictory messages to the brain. This can cause us to feel unwell, dizzy or nauseous.


The vestibular system is especially sensitive in children, and reacts more slowly to movements as we grow older. Inner ear infections and other problems may also affect how well our sense of balance works.


The human body can achieve an understanding of the world through its sensory systems. Sensory systems are widespread throughout the body including those that detect the world directly from the outside (exteroreceptors), those that detect information from internal organs and processes (interoceptors), and those detecting sense of position and load (proprioception).[1][2][3][1]


Sensory receptors occur in specialized organs such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, as well as internal organs. Each receptor type conveys a distinct sensory modality to integrate into a single perceptual frame eventually. This information is achieved by the conversion of energy into an electrical signal by specialized mechanisms. In this report, we will discuss a basic overview of sensory systems, focusing on sensory receptors.


All impulses from the receptors transmit as nerve signals and what ultimately determines how we perceive the stimulus is where the nerve fiber terminates in the central nervous system. It is important to realize that what one senses is dependent on the receptor and any damage occurring from the beginning of the path to its end.


To discuss how sound receptors work, first, we must mention the order of events. Sound waves travel to the ear creating a vibration in the tympanic membrane. This energy transforms into mechanical energy to the malleus, incus, and stapes. The stapes are in close proximity to the oval window, and it amplifies the mechanical energy to the cochlea, a fluid-filled structure with a fluid called perilymph, by directly pushing on it. The cochlea has three layers called scala vestibuli (the ascending portion), scala media, and scala tympani (the descending portion). The organ of Corti is on the basilar membrane surface, and it contains hair cells which are the primary receptors in sound signal creation. There are two varieties of hair cells: inner and outer. Inner cells transmit information to the auditory nerve, and outer cells mechanically amplify low-level sound entering the cochlea.


The inner ear senses balance. With head motion or pressure impulses of sound, the endolymph vibrates and creates a stimulus for the receptors of the vestibular system - the utricle and saccule. Inside the utricle and saccule are maculae containing hair cells with a membranous covering of microscopic otoconia that detect motion of the endolymph. Those in the saccule help sense vertical accelerations whereas those in the utricle sense horizontal accelerations. With changes in position, and thus changes in fluid motion, the shifting of these hair cells causes the opening of receptor channels leading to action potentials propagating from the hair cells to the auditory nerve. The rate of fluid motion, plus the quality of the fluid, gives more information about the motion. While the utricle and saccule detect linear motion, the semicircular ducts detect rotations in a similar fashion.[5]


The smell occurs by binding of odorant molecules to receptors on the membrane of the cilia, causing an action potential that sends this information to the brain. These systems utilize G-protein receptors along with adenylate cyclase. Initially, scientists believed that molecules bound directly to receptors and that each receptor potentially identified a specific type of smell. However, Yoshioka et al. proposed a more plausible theory, because hydrogen and its isotope are sensed as entirely different smells. The authors relate this to a postulate called the "molecule vibration model." When a substance is bound to its receptor, the substrate allows electrons to go down their gradient, and through their specific vibrational energies, it causes a flow of chemical changes and subsequent signaling to the brain.[4]


Cold receptors mainly sense temperatures between 25 to 30C. Temperatures below this cause release of bursting discharges. In touching dangerously hot objects (greater than 45C), there can be a brief sensation of cold due to the paradoxical firing of cold receptors. Warm receptors respond to the approximate temperature range of 30 to 46C. Higher temperatures may result in the decreased firing of these receptors.[8]


Nociceptors help signal pain that is related to temperature, pressure, and chemicals. As Dubin et al. discusses, most sensory receptors have low sensitivity to dictate all sensations to the brain. However, when it comes to pain, nociceptors only signal when the body has reached a point of tissue damage. Inflammatory markers increase during tissue damage, bind to receptors, and initiate pain signaling either externally or in the viscera. One of the ion channels families that are present on nociceptive neurons is called TRP (transient receptor potential) ion channels. Those signals that activate nociceptive receptors include extremes of temperatures, high pressures, and chemicals causing tissue damage [12]. Different fibers relay pain information; these are A-delta and C fibers. These fibers differ in their myelination and nerve diameter and thus speed of transmission. Painful temperatures, uncomfortable pressures, and chemicals mostly use C-fibers. C-fibers vary to be able to sense all three types of stimuli. A-delta fibers are small and unmyelinated and are primarily involved in thermal and mechanosensitive pain. Nociceptors utilize mostly glutamate but also substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and somatostatin to signal pain.[12]


The sensory organ of the eye is the retina. In concert with the cornea and lens, light focuses on the vision board where information can transform from physical matter into electrical energy that lends itself to interpretation and understanding of the external world by the brain.


The mediation of the sense of load and position is through the specialized structures of muscle spindles and joint capsules which contain mechanoreceptors that detect joint angle, muscle length, and force.


Primary sensory cortical areas contain neurons that construct a location-specific or a quality-specific organization. Somatotopic representation displays in the primary sensory cortex by representing a distorted anatomical version of the body called a sensory homunculus. Another example is the auditory system, where it displays a tonotopic map in the primary auditory cortex pertaining to sound frequencies.


During metazoan development, cell-fate diversity is brought about, in part, by asymmetric cell divisions. In Drosophila, bristle mechanosensory organs are composed of four different cells that originate from a single precursor cell, pI, after two rounds of asymmetric division. At each division, distinct fates are conferred on sister cells by the asymmetric segregation of Numb, a negative regulator of Notch signalling. Here we show that the orientation of the mitotic spindles and the localization of the Numb crescent follow a stereotyped pattern. Mitosis of pI is orientated parallel to the anteroposterior axis of the fly. We show that signalling mediated by the Frizzled receptor polarizes pI along this axis, thereby specifying the orientation of the mitotic spindle and positioning the Numb crescent. The mitoses of the two cells produced by mitosis of pI are orientated parallel and orthogonal, respectively, to the division axis of pI. This difference in cell-division orientation is largely independent of the identity of the secondary precursor cells, and is regulated by Frizzled-independent mechanisms.


Birds are bipedal animals with a center of gravity rostral to the insertion of the hindlimbs. This imposes special demands on keeping balance when moving on the ground. Recently, specializations in the lumbosacral region have been suggested to function as a sense organ of equilibrium which is involved in the control of walking. Morphological, electrophysiological, behavioral and embryological evidence for such a function is reviewed. Birds have two nearly independent kinds of locomotion and it is suggested that two different sense organs play an important role in their respective control: the vestibular organ during flight and the lumbosacral system during walking.


The selection of Drosophila melanogaster sense organ precursors (SOPs) for sensory bristles is a progressive process: each neural equivalence group is transiently defined by the expression of proneural genes (proneural cluster), and neural fate is refined to single cells by Notch-Delta lateral inhibitory signalling between the cells. Unlike sensory bristles, SOPs of chordotonal (stretch receptor) sense organs are tightly clustered. Here we show that for one large adult chordotonal SOP array, clustering results from the progressive accumulation of a large number of SOPs from a persistent proneural cluster. This is achieved by a novel interplay of inductive epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR) and competitive Notch signals. EGFR acts in opposition to Notch signalling in two ways: it promotes continuous SOP recruitment despite lateral inhibition, and it attenuates the effect of lateral inhibition on the proneural cluster equivalence group, thus maintaining the persistent proneural cluster. SOP recruitment is reiterative because the inductive signal comes from previously recruited SOPs. 041b061a72


소개

Welcome to the group! You can connect with other members, ge...

  • 뮤직아이
  • Anas Altab
    Anas Altab
  • Joseph Kharlamov
    Joseph Kharlamov
  • Bill Drew
    Bill Drew
  • Peter Harmon
    Peter Harmon
bottom of page