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Novice Karate Group (ages 8 & up)

공개·회원 9명
Valentine Ponomarev
Valentine Ponomarev

Search Results For Impact Cad (24)

Why is energy important to Google? Reliable electricity supply from our data centers is the fuel that enables us to deliver your search results, emails, YouTube video plays, Cloud Platform services, and much more. And the emissions associated with our electricity consumption have comprised the majority of our carbon footprint.

Search results for impact cad (24)

We've worked hard to address our climate impacts. It began in 2007 when we became the first company to go carbon neutral for our operations because of our purchases of renewable energy and procurement of high-quality carbon credits. In the process, we worked to make Google data centers some of the most energy efficient in the world. In 2017, we became the first company of our size to match 100% of our annual electricity consumption with renewable energy. Over the past decade, Google purchased more renewable energy than any other company, based on our cumulative renewable electricity purchased in megawatt-hours from 2012 to 2021.

When we run our operations on round-the-clock clean energy, it means you are using a cleaner internet. This will mean every email you send through Gmail, every question you ask Google Search, every YouTube video you watch, and every route you take using Google Maps, is supplied by clean energy every hour of every day. 24/7 Carbon-Free Energy is about moving beyond offsets to remove carbon from our energy supply completely. Our energy projects not only help power our Google apps and services -- the large-scale installation of solar panels, wind turbines, and other clean energy technologies catalyze local economies and create local jobs. Every time you search, email, upload photos, or watch videos, you can be confident that we are making it happen with clean energy.

The prevalence of anxiety and depression during COVID-19 outbreak, varies across the studies, having a wide range from 8.3% (36) to 49.7% (42) for anxiety or 14.6% (36) to 47.2% (42) for depression, in consonance with previous studies of other epidemics. For instance, 39% of prevalence of anxiety was observed in France due to avian influenza (67); 48% of the general population in Sierra Leone experimented symptoms of anxiety or depression 1 year after Ebola outbreak (68); in Hong Kong due to the SARS epidemic, 73% and 57% of individuals presented low mood and irritability (respectively) (33), as well as depression in 31.2% of 129 quarantined persons for SARS epidemic in 2003 (69). The lower rates of anxiety and depression observed in some studies of our review during coronavirus pandemic could be explained for several reasons. The first one is that, based on previous epidemics, strong and quickly measures to keep mental health could have been taken by the governments, avoiding a bigger psychological impact. As time goes by, there was more information about SARS-Cov-2, which could also lead to a better management of the situation. However, data were collected in a very earlier stage of the pandemic, hence, these results should be taken with caution.

Isolated older people have less physical activity and more sedentary behavior than those non-isolated[80]. Physical activity is described as any body movement using skeletal muscle that results in energy expenditure > 1.5 metabolic equivalent of task (MET), while sedentary behavior is defined as any waking behavior characterized by an energy expenditure 1.5 or less MET while in a sitting, reclining or lying posture (81, 82). Increased sedentary behavior has been associated with the prevalence of different comorbidities in elderly people (83). Since a direct association has been reported between sedentary time and time spent at home in elderly people (84), recommendations have to be made to prevent health consequences in people with social isolation associated to the pandemic COVID-19.

Excess weight in the young population has serious health implications. The frequencies of endocrine, metabolic, orthopaedic and psychological disorders are significantly higher in children and adolescents with obesity than in peers with normal body weight. Research indicates that approximately 80% of obese adolescents will remain obese in adulthood [3].

Knowledge of nutrition behaviours is an essential element in designing educational activities aimed at eliminating these undesirable habits. These actions may contribute to the reduction of excessive body weight among children and adolescents [15]. Research emphasises the effectiveness of programs promoting a healthy diet and physical activity and the importance of more personalised actions [16,17,18], as well as the need to identify potential barriers for such actions [19].

Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased likelihood of premature death and disability in adulthood, placing a heavy burden on individuals and societies worldwide while entailing enormous medical care and treatment costs and lowering the quality of life [33,34]. Nutrition behaviour, a lifestyle element, has a significant impact on health and quality of life. Poor nutrition behaviours may contribute to many disorders, such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and posture defects [35].

Consuming fewer meals during the day and taking longer breaks between them is conducive to snacking, another irregularity in eating habits. Over 80% of the youth in this research confirmed snacking between meals, from several times a week to several times a day. The most commonly chosen snacks were fruits and sweets. Similarly, Jasinska [18] reported that over 90% of the study participants admitted to snacking between meals with varying frequency, with boys tending to practice this habit more than girls and the most frequently declared snacks being sandwiches, fruit and fruit yoghurts. In addition, Wouters et al. [39] showed a significant relationship between the strength of the habit and the momentary energy intake from snacking between meals: the greater the strength of snacking between meals, the greater the amount of energy consumed.

Amanda Bellucco-Chatham is an editor, writer, and fact-checker with years of experience researching personal finance topics. Specialties include general financial planning, career development, lending, retirement, tax preparation, and credit.

The following electronic databases were searched using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Health Economic Evaluation Database (OHE-HEED), and Web of Science. Search terms were investigated, including: "asthma", "direct service costs", "cost of illness", "cost- benefit analysis" and "health care costs". Duplicate citations were identified and removed using RefWorks online bibliographic management tool.

The titles and abstracts of all publications identified through the primary literature search were independently reviewed by two investigators. The inclusion and exclusion criteria used for study selection are outlined in Table 1. The total of four non-English abstracts were retrieved and excluded from the literature search. The full text of all potentially eligible papers determined after the first level of screening was reviewed to ensure that each paper met the inclusion criteria for population and outcomes of interest.

The primary literature search identified 2,976 citations. After removing duplicate citations we were left with 2,073 unique citations for screening. The manual screening of all 2,073 titles and abstracts yielded 307 articles that contained primary clinical data evaluating the cost of asthma. Of the 307 full articles retrieved and reviewed by the investigators, 68 met the inclusion criteria (Figure 2).

Stanford and associates reported resources such as nursing care, respiratory therapy, and ED-specific supplies along with equipment use and physician fees to account for the majority of hospital costs of asthma; 44%, 11% and 53% of the costs, respectively [36]. The results of the cost estimation for asthma hospitalization in Quebec for the year 1994/95 indicated that of the total cost of $23.3 million, the greatest proportion was accounted for by pediatric patients ($11 million) [57]. Similar findings in a retrospective cohort study also suggested that although teaching hospitals in their study were not found to have higher charges, children's hospitals appeared to be more expensive due to the inherent responsibilities of a teaching hospital, but also due to the fact that they act as regional referral centers with specialized services for children [25].

Unscheduled consultations found to be major components of primary care costs associated with the management of asthma. Prescribed medication for maintenance treatment was also found to contribute significantly to the total asthma related costs. However, the results from studies comparing these two services have given conflicting results. In a large high-quality cohort study in eight countries from the Asia-Pacific region, direct costs of asthma were estimated as: total costs, urgent (unscheduled) versus maintenance costs, and drug versus non-drug costs. The study reported that the urgent care costs were higher than maintenance costs in the participating areas: Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia and China, representing 62% of the total costs [31]. In contrast costs of maintenance therapy were reported to be more important in adults and children, respectively accounting for 67% of total health services in one study [62] and 55% and 73% of the total direct costs of treatment in another study [63]. None of the two latter studies were of high quality and thus, may not be a true reflection of the overall economic impact of asthma.

In contrast, two studies in the US found no significant differences in costs and charges between teaching and non-teaching hospitals suggesting that, even with the responsibility of providing education, research, and care for indigent patients, teaching hospitals are competitive in their treatment of asthma [25, 59]. One possible reason contributing to the differences in costs based on hospital ownership might be attributable to a hospital's levels of efficiency and also with the exception of mechanical ventilation of asthma patients; usual care of asthma patients irrespective of location is not associated with a high level of technology [32]. 041b061a72


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